Family: Athyrioideae
Synonym: Anisogonium esculentum, Asplenium ambiguum, Asplenium esculentumAthyrium esculentum, Callipteris ambigua, Callipteris esculenta, Digrammaria esculenta, Diplazium malabaricum, Hemionitis esculenta,Microstegia esculenta, Common name: Vegetable fern,
Local name: Lingad (लिंगड़)

.

Lingad, which is a fern, is one of the most popular wild growing food plants of Himachal Pradesh.  It is eaten in large quantities by Himachalis.  Severalpreparations are made from it.  Every year tons of lingad worth lakhs of rupees is sold in the vegetable markets of Himachal towns. 

This entire supply of this plant comes from forests as lingad has still not been brought under cultivation. Besides Himachal, lingad also grows in the forests of Kashmir and Uttaranchal and there too people like it.


Type of area where lingad grows in wild

Lingad plants grow at humid and shady locations, mostly along streams and springs in hill forests from 1300 to 1900 metres above the sea level.  The young emerging hairy, blackish green fronds of this plant make the edible part.  These are around 1 cm thick at base, 6 – 9 inches long, erect but coiled at the apex.  These fronds are in fact leaf stalks with developing leaves at the top. They are fit for eating during the earlier stages when these are tender.  After this stage, the leaves open up, increase in size and the succulent stem turns woody.  It is does not remain fit for cooking at that stage.  So lingad has therefore to be picked at a particular stage of development.  Therefore it has a limited season.

Young Lingad fronds

Lingad is not just another vegetable.  Special curries like DUM (दम)and MADHRA (मधरा) with exclusive recipes are made inHimachal from it.  The preparations are even served as special dishes to VIPs on special occasions like marriages.  Lingad is especially popular among the members of Sood community of HP and they have their own recipes for lingad curries.

Lingad plant:

Lingad is a tufted fast-growing  perennial fern. It usually grows on exposed grassy slopes. This plant has a stout creeping rhizome growing in the soil which is not visible from the outside.

                               Lingad fronds ready for harvesting

        This rhizome produces numerous fronds which are mostly tripinnate. covered with short rufous scales of about 1 cm long. Uppermost pinnae are simple. 

When fully developed, the pinnae can be 0.6 to 1.8 m long and 30-60 cm wide.

Edible uses:

As soon as the weather starts warming up after winter, new fronds start emerging as a coil.  This coil keeps growing upwards. It is harvested when it is 15 to 20 cm long.  After that stage, the terminal coil starts straightening and leaves begin to emerge.  The frond also starts loosing its tenderness and begins to become woody.  When this stage reaches, it becomes unfit for cooking.  So fronds have to be harvested when these are succulent which is before this stage comes.

Lingad fronds after removing hair

The tender fronds are used as vegetable.Special curries like dum (दम) and madhra (मधरा) and pickle. Young fronds are stir-fried and used as a salad. Lingad salad is served in hotels and restaurants

Stir-fried lingad salad

Preparing lingad vegetable:

 The fronds are hairy. Therefore the hairs have to be removed before cooking.  This is easily done by rubbing the fronds with a thick piece of cloth.  Some prefer to remove the hairy skin which is quite thin and is easily peeled off.  Then the fronds are cut into small pieces and cooked as per choice.

Ingredients required:

Lingad fronds, 1 kg; mustard oil, 3-4 table spoons; coriander powder, ½ table spoon; fenugreek powder,1tea spoon; cumin seed, 1 table spoon turmeric powder, 1 table spoon; red chillies, 2-4, medium sized chopped onion, 1;  chopped garlic cloves, 4-5; salt according to taste;curd, 4 cups; chopped green coriander leaves, ½ cup amount; garam masala, 1/2; table spoon.

Method :

The fronds are cut into pieces and boiled. These are then stir fried after adding salt and spices in a sequence as listed above and eaten as vegetable with chapaties. Chopped fronds can directly be sauted in hot mustered oil along with spices listed above in sequence and cooked till become soft then served.


   Lingad vegetable ready to serve
Lingad vegetable curry

To prepare curries  add curd and cook for another 10 to 15 minutes, then add garam masala and garnish it with  chopped green coriander leaves  then  serve with rice.\


Lingad pickle

Pickle is also prepared and very famous in state usually served with kachouri and siddu in local, national or international fairs.

Nutritive value:

The young tender fronds are mucilaginous.  One hundred grams of fresh fronds contain 91.3 g moisture, 1.0 g protein, 100 mg fat, 1.4 g fiber, 600 mg of mineral matter.  They also contain 0.98 mg/100 g of beta carotene1 .

Medicinal Value:

A decoction of lingdu leaves is used as a tonic for women after child birth. This plant is used in many traditional medicines too 2.

Lingad as source of income:

Lingad is quite good source of earning for villagers, particularly women.  A discussion by this writer with lingad sellers in Mandi town revealed that on an average about 100 kg of lingad is sold daily at Mandi town only for a season of 80 days.  This quantity is worth 1,60,000 rupees at an average price of 20 rupees a kg.  Lingad is sold in all big and small towns of HP.  So the total annual trade in lingad must be worth several lakh rupees.


Village women selling lingad at Mandi town.

         The lingad has to be collected from odd and difficult places located deep inside the forests.  The lingad sold at Mandi comes from Kandhi area and the sellers are mostly from Kataula area.  The villagers go to the forest to harvest lingad in groups of 3 to 4.  A person cannot bring more than 25 kg as the stuff has to be carried on head on arduous forest paths.  The fronds are then cleaned, cut and made into small bunches at home, mostly during the night. According to lingad sellers, a 60 kg lot of lingad collected from forest costs them around 500 rupees including labour and bus fares.  They say that one can make about 125-150 rupees a day from it.  36 years old Begi Devi, who is regularly bringing lingad to Mandi during the past three years, says that her net profit from lingad sale last year was rupees 15,000.
Lingad is also a good source of bread and butter for poor women of Western Himalayas. Women of Mandi area of Himachal Pradesh prepare lingad pickle and sell it through various SHG in SHG fair at Seri munch of Mandi town at the rate of 400 Rs per Kg. People relish lingad pickle along with siddu in famous Shivratri fair of distt. Mandi. Lingad pickle is in great demand during this time and is a good source of earning for the people of different region of Himachal Pradesh.


Lingad pickle selling at Seri munch of distt,Mandi during Self Help Group fair



No fear of extinction:

The happiest part of lingad story is that unlike other useful plants harvested from the wild, there is no decline in the natural population of lingad.  All the lingad sellers opined unanimously that the availability of these plants in the forest has remained the same.  It might be due to the reason that lingad plants are not dug up like medicinal herbs.  The individual fronds are cut at the ground level.  The natural regeneration therefore remains unaffected.

lingad selling at another location in Mandi town

A fully grown lingad plant.  It cannot be used as it has turned woody.

References:

  1. Anonymous, (1952), The Wealth of India:Raw Materials, Vol. III, CSIR, New Delhi.
  2. Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. (1935); Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol. 1-4. Lalit Mohan Basu, Allahabad.

1,699 thoughts on “Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw _ Lingad (लिंगड़)

  1. Hi, I do believe this is a great blog. I stumbledupon it 😉 I may come back yet again since i have bookmarked it.

    Money and freedom is the greatest way to change, may you be rich and continue to help others.

  2. This is nicely expressed. .
    [url=https://canadianpharmacycom.com/]pharmacie canadienne[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyopen.com/]canadian prescriptions online[/url] [url=https://safeonlinecanadian.com/]northwest pharmacy[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyntv.com/]canadadrugstore365[/url]

  3. Appreciate it, Plenty of knowledge.

    [url=https://canadianpharmaciescubarx.com/]canada viagra[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyntv.com/]canadian pharmacies that ship to us[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyopen.com/]canadian pharmacies without an rx[/url] [url=https://viaonlinebuyntx.com/]canadian online pharmacies[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacycom.com/]canada drug pharmacy[/url]

  4. Nicely put. Many thanks!
    [url=https://viagrabestbuyrx.com/]online drugstore[/url] [url=https://buymodafinilntx.com/]provigil side effects[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmaciescubarx.com/]canadianpharmacy[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyntv.com/]north west pharmacy canada[/url] [url=https://canadianonlinepharmacytrust.com/]canadapharmacy[/url]

  5. Regards, Very good information!
    [url=https://canadianpharmacycom.com/]buy medication without an rx[/url] [url=https://trustedwebpharmacy.com/]canadian pharmacies-24h[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyopen.com/]canadian pharcharmy online fda approved[/url] [url=https://viaonlinebuymsn.com/]generic viagra without[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyntv.com/]drugs for sale[/url] [url=https://ciaonlinebuymsn.com/]canadian online pharmacies[/url]

  6. Wow a lot of wonderful knowledge.
    [url=https://safeonlinecanadian.com/]canadian pharmacies-24h[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyopen.com/]ordering prescriptions from canada legally[/url] [url=https://trustedwebpharmacy.com/]canadian pharmacy viagra brandcanadian pharmaceuticals online[/url]

  7. Kudos! Quite a lot of postings.

    [url=https://ciaonlinebuymsn.com/]canada drug pharmacy[/url] [url=https://safeonlinecanadian.com/]canadian meds[/url] [url=https://viaonlinebuyntx.com/]northwest pharmacy canada[/url] [url=https://buymodafinilntx.com/]armodafinil vs modafinil[/url] [url=https://trustedwebpharmacy.com/]top rated online canadian pharmacies[/url] [url=https://viaonlinebuymsn.com/]viagra without a doctor prescription price[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmaciescubarx.com/]canada prescription plus pharmacy[/url]

  8. You actually reported that perfectly!
    [url=https://viaonlinebuymsn.com/]viagra without going to a doctor[/url] [url=https://ciaonlinebuyntx.com/]Cialis 20 Mg Filmtabletta[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacycom.com/]canada drugs[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmaciescubarx.com/]canadianpharmacy[/url] [url=https://viaonlinebuyntx.com/]canadian viagra[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyopen.com/]mexican pharmacies shipping to usa[/url] [url=https://safeonlinecanadian.com/]canada drug[/url]

  9. Incredible tons of terrific data!
    [url=https://buymodafinilntx.com/]buy provigil[/url] [url=https://viagrabestbuyrx.com/]northwest pharmacy[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmaciescubarx.com/]canada pharmacies online[/url] [url=https://safeonlinecanadian.com/]canada pharmaceuticals online[/url] [url=https://ciaonlinebuymsn.com/]aarp recommended canadian pharmacies[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacycom.com/]canadian pharmacy[/url] [url=https://viaonlinebuyntx.com/]london drugs canada[/url]

  10. You stated this adequately.
    [url=https://trustedwebpharmacy.com/]canadian cialis[/url] [url=https://canadianonlinepharmacytrust.com/]canadian pharmaceuticals online[/url] [url=https://safeonlinecanadian.com/]canada drug pharmacy[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyntv.com/]canadian drugs[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacycom.com/]canadian pharmacies shipping to usa[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyntv.com/]canadian pharmacies[/url] [url=https://viagrabestbuyrx.com/]canadian pharmacies[/url]

  11. Thanks a lot! Awesome stuff!
    [url=https://canadianpharmaciescubarx.com/]northwest pharmacy[/url] [url=https://buymodafinilntx.com/]provigil lawsuit[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacycom.com/]canadian viagra[/url] [url=https://canadianonlinepharmacytrust.com/]trust pharmacy canada[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyntv.com/]canadian pharmacies that ship to us[/url]

  12. You suggested that fantastically.
    [url=https://canadianonlinepharmacytrust.com/]canadian online pharmacy[/url] [url=https://viaonlinebuymsn.com/]viagra without prescription[/url] [url=https://buymodafinilntx.com/]modafinil[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyntv.com/]aarp approved canadian online pharmacies[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyntv.com/]online pharmacies in usa[/url]

  13. Thanks a lot, Helpful information!
    [url=https://viaonlinebuymsn.com/]viagra without doctor prescription usa[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyntv.com/]no 1 canadian pharcharmy online[/url] [url=https://trustedwebpharmacy.com/]canadian pharmacies shipping to usa[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacycom.com/]canada pharmaceutical online ordering[/url]

  14. Cheers. I appreciate this.
    [url=https://ciaonlinebuymsn.com/]canadian pharmacies shipping to usa[/url] [url=https://trustedwebpharmacy.com/]canadian pharmacies online[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmaciescubarx.com/]order prescriptions online without doctor[/url]

  15. You actually stated it wonderfully.
    [url=https://canadianpharmaciescubarx.com/]highest rated canadian pharmacies[/url] [url=https://ciaonlinebuymsn.com/]cvs pharmacy online[/url] [url=https://viagrabestbuyrx.com/]canada pharmacy[/url] [url=https://canadianonlinepharmacytrust.com/]london drugs canada[/url] [url=https://safeonlinecanadian.com/]canada drugs online[/url] [url=https://ciaonlinebuyntx.com/]cheap cialis[/url]

  16. Appreciate it! Numerous knowledge!

    [url=https://safeonlinecanadian.com/]canadian pharmacy certified canada pharmacy online[/url] [url=https://viagrabestbuyrx.com/]canada drugs direct[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyopen.com/]trust pharmacy canada[/url] [url=https://trustedwebpharmacy.com/]canadian pharmacies that ship to us[/url] [url=https://buymodafinilntx.com/]provigil lawsuit[/url]

  17. With thanks, Great information!
    [url=https://viagrabestbuyrx.com/]mexican pharmacies shipping to usa[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacycom.com/]canadian online pharmacies[/url] [url=https://buymodafinilntx.com/]interactions for modafinil[/url] [url=https://trustedwebpharmacy.com/]canada pharmaceutical online ordering[/url] [url=https://ciaonlinebuymsn.com/]online pharmacy[/url]

  18. Wow a good deal of valuable info!
    [url=https://safeonlinecanadian.com/]canadian pharmacies online[/url] [url=https://viaonlinebuymsn.com/]generic viagra without a doctor prescription[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyntv.com/]prescription discount[/url] [url=https://buymodafinilntx.com/]provigil lawsuit[/url] [url=https://viaonlinebuyntx.com/]online pharmacies canada[/url]

  19. Nicely put, Kudos.
    [url=https://viagrabestbuyrx.com/]canada pharmacies[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmaciescubarx.com/]canadian pharmacy viagra brand[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyntv.com/]canadian pharmacies that ship to us[/url] [url=https://safeonlinecanadian.com/]canadian pharcharmy online[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyopen.com/]canadianpharmacy[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyntv.com/]canada pharmaceutical online ordering[/url]

  20. Nicely put. Thanks a lot!
    [url=https://canadianpharmacycom.com/]canadian pharmacies[/url] [url=https://viaonlinebuymsn.com/]viagra without doctor’s prescription + usa pharmacies[/url] [url=https://canadianonlinepharmacytrust.com/]canadian pharmacies-24h[/url] [url=https://viagrabestbuyrx.com/]global pharmacy canada[/url]

  21. You reported this fantastically.
    [url=https://canadianpharmacyopen.com/]online pharmacies of canada[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyntv.com/]canadian pharmacies online[/url] [url=https://viagrabestbuyrx.com/]drugs for sale[/url] [url=https://viaonlinebuymsn.com/]viagra without doctor prescription[/url] [url=https://ciaonlinebuyntx.com/]Cialis Preco Atual[/url] [url=https://buymodafinilntx.com/]provigil lawsuit[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyntv.com/]cheap drugs[/url]

  22. Seriously a good deal of fantastic facts.
    [url=https://viaonlinebuyntx.com/]canadian viagra[/url] [url=https://ciaonlinebuymsn.com/]north west pharmacy canada[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyopen.com/]trust pharmacy canada[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmaciescubarx.com/]canadian pharmacies-24h[/url]

  23. Incredible loads of amazing material.
    [url=https://canadianpharmaciescubarx.com/]canadian pharmacies-24h[/url] [url=https://ciaonlinebuymsn.com/]canada drugs[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacycom.com/]canadian pharmacy world[/url] [url=https://trustedwebpharmacy.com/]online pharmacies of canada[/url]

  24. You actually expressed this fantastically.
    [url=https://viaonlinebuymsn.com/]viagra without doctor prescription[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmaciescubarx.com/]canadian pharmacies that ship to us[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacycom.com/]canadian pharcharmy[/url] [url=https://viaonlinebuyntx.com/]mexican pharmacies shipping to usa[/url] [url=https://trustedwebpharmacy.com/]canadian pharmacies online[/url] [url=https://safeonlinecanadian.com/]canadian pharmacy cialis[/url]

  25. You said it perfectly..
    [url=https://viagrabestbuyrx.com/]canada pharmacies online[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyopen.com/]canadian pharmacies without an rx[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyntv.com/]canada pharmaceutical online ordering[/url]

  26. Kudos! Numerous postings.

    [url=https://canadianpharmacycom.com/]canada pharmacies online[/url] [url=https://safeonlinecanadian.com/]northwest pharmacy/com[/url] [url=https://ciaonlinebuyntx.com/]Cialis Therapeutic Range[/url] [url=https://trustedwebpharmacy.com/]north west pharmacy canada[/url]

  27. With thanks! Loads of information.

    [url=https://buymodafinilntx.com/]buy provigil[/url] [url=https://trustedwebpharmacy.com/]online pharmacy canada[/url] [url=https://viagrabestbuyrx.com/]canadian pharmacy online[/url] [url=https://ciaonlinebuyntx.com/]Tadalafil Price Cheap[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmaciescubarx.com/]canadianpharmacy[/url] [url=https://safeonlinecanadian.com/]canadian pharmaceuticals online[/url] [url=https://viaonlinebuymsn.com/]viagra without a doctor prescription usa[/url]

  28. Thanks. I enjoy this!
    [url=https://canadianpharmacyntv.com/]canada pharmacy[/url] [url=https://trustedwebpharmacy.com/]canadian pharmacies online prescriptions[/url] [url=https://ciaonlinebuymsn.com/]canada pharmaceutical online ordering[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyopen.com/]aarp approved canadian online pharmacies[/url]

  29. You actually revealed it very well.
    [url=https://canadianonlinepharmacytrust.com/]canadadrugs[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyntv.com/]top rated online canadian pharmacies[/url] [url=https://ciaonlinebuymsn.com/]canadian pharmacies that ship to us[/url]

  30. Nicely put. With thanks!
    [url=https://canadianpharmacyntv.com/]canadian pharmacies that are legit[/url] [url=https://canadianonlinepharmacytrust.com/]viagra canada[/url] [url=https://ciaonlinebuyntx.com/]cialis tablets[/url] [url=https://safeonlinecanadian.com/]northwestpharmacy[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmaciescubarx.com/]london drugs canada[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyntv.com/]international drug mart canadian pharmacy online store[/url]

  31. Thank you! Ample info.

    [url=https://viaonlinebuyntx.com/]canada drugs online[/url] [url=https://trustedwebpharmacy.com/]online pharmacies of canada[/url] [url=https://canadianonlinepharmacytrust.com/]canada drugs online[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyntv.com/]drugs from canada[/url] [url=https://ciaonlinebuymsn.com/]top rated online canadian pharmacies[/url] [url=https://safeonlinecanadian.com/]canadianpharmacy[/url] [url=https://ciaonlinebuyntx.com/]cialis generic[/url]

  32. Nicely put, Thank you!
    [url=https://ciaonlinebuyntx.com/]cialis[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyntv.com/]canadian drugs[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacycom.com/]canada online pharmacies[/url] [url=https://viaonlinebuymsn.com/]generic viagra no doctor prescriptions[/url]

  33. You said this wonderfully!
    [url=https://canadianpharmacycom.com/]highest rated canadian pharmacies[/url] [url=https://trustedwebpharmacy.com/]canadian pharmacies online prescriptions[/url]

  34. Kudos, A lot of postings.

    [url=https://canadianpharmacyntv.com/]top rated canadian pharmacies online[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyopen.com/]northwest pharmacy[/url]

  35. You revealed this effectively.
    [url=https://ciaonlinebuyntx.com/]Comprar Cialis Lisboa[/url] [url=https://viagrabestbuyrx.com/]canadian online pharmacies[/url] [url=https://canadianonlinepharmacytrust.com/]northwest pharmacy[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmaciescubarx.com/]canada pharmacy[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacyopen.com/]canadian pharmacy world[/url] [url=https://trustedwebpharmacy.com/]top rated online canadian pharmacies[/url] [url=https://safeonlinecanadian.com/]aarp recommended canadian pharmacies[/url]

  36. Wonderful postings. With thanks!
    [url=https://viaonlinebuyntx.com/]canada pharmacies online prescriptions[/url] [url=https://ciaonlinebuyntx.com/]cialis without a doctor prescription[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacycom.com/]online pharmacies of canada[/url] [url=https://canadianonlinepharmacytrust.com/]list of approved canadian pharmacies[/url] [url=https://buymodafinilntx.com/]provigil side effects[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmaciescubarx.com/]pharmacy on line[/url]

  37. You actually expressed that terrifically. [url=https://canadianpharmaceuticalsonlinerx.com/]canadianpharmacyking.com[/url]