Family: Rutaceae

Synonyms: Crataeva marmelos, Feronia pellucida

Common Name: Bael Tree

Local Name: Bill Patri (बिल पत्री), Bel, Sans Bilva,

Bill Patri is a slow-growing deciduous or evergreen , shrub or small tree of Western Himalaya, well known for its sacred leaves. It is seen growing in well drained habitat of dry deciduous forests on hills and plains up to an altitude of 900 m in Western Himalayas. Occasionally it is found near habitations as wild. Plant is frequently cultivated by locals around their home and temple for its religious value. Whole plant is considered a sacred tree by the inhabitants and its leaves are indispensable offerings to the Lord Shiva during famous Shivrati festival of North Western Himalaya.

Bill patri tree growing in wild habitat

Bill patri fruits are edible and used to make a very refreshing drink. They are eaten raw or cooked to prepare jams,murabba,pickle and jellies. Ripe fruits are laxative and tonic, their pulp is eaten for its rich vitamin C content and are considered good for the heart and brain. Dried young leaves and shoot terminals are used as a condiment to harness its medicinal and nutritive properties. Flowers and tender leaves can  also be cooked into KACHRU.  Plant is harvested from wild or cultivated habitat as a source of food, fuel, medicine, wood and material.

 

Root bark and fruits of bill patri are cooling, laxative, digestive and stomachic, used in diarrhea, dysentery and intermittent fever by inhabitants 1. Leaves are dried and powdered and taken as a remedy of diabetes by locals.

Fruits and leaves of bill patri both have market value and sold in local market. Leaves are easy source of earning for women and children. They collect leaves and sell outside the temple in town where bill patri leaves are not available.

An evergreen cultivated Bill patri tree

Bill patri Plant:

Bill patri tree is a slow-growing deciduous shrub or small to medium- sized trees, upto 10 – 15 m tall. It is armed with axillary, straight, sharp spines.

 Leaves alternate, odd- pinnate; leaflets 3, ovate- lanceolate, crenate, lateral ones opposite, nearly sessile, terminal long stalked.

 Flowers greenish- white, 4-5 merous, sweet scented, in short, lateral panicles.

 Fruits large, globose, 10- 15 cm. pulp sweet, aromatic.

Seeds numerous, oblong, flat.

Close up of bill patri tree

Bill patri can provide edible fruits from winter end to summer. Leaves can be harvested round the year. For sustainability few fruits should be left on parent plant for regeneration.

Edible Uses:

Fruits are used to prepare a summer refreshing drink or sharvat. Ripe fruit are edible and their pulp is pickled and cooked into jam or murabba in following ways.

Bill fruits collected for cooking

Fruit Jam:

Ingredients:

Ripe fruits pulp ,1 kg; sugar, 500 g; fennel powder, 1tea spoon; cardamom powder,1 tea spoon, honey 4-5 table spoon.

Method:

Boil fruit pulp in water till it got soft and let it cool down. Mesh it in a mixer grinder and transfer into a saucepan, Add to it sugar, fennel powder, cardamom powder and honey. Keep stirring this mixture in slow flame till sugar completely melt and absorb. Stop heating when preparation become viscous. Now let it cool down and put it into a ceramic jar. Jam is ready to serve.

Halwa:

Ingredients:

Fresh chopped ripe bill fruits, 1-2/ Powdered dry ripe fruit pulp powder, 50 g; mawa/sooji, 1- 3 table spoon; sugar, 3-5 table spoon; cardamom powder, 1tea spoon; Desi ghee; 100 g; grated dry fruits, 1 table spoon.

Method:

For preparing fresh fruits halwa separate pulp from skin and add to boiling water. Mesh when it cool down. Now in hot desi ghee fry it well by continuous stirring add to it sugar, mawa and cook for 5 to 8 minutes. Add cardamom powder and grated dry fruits and serve.

Dried fruit pulp powder can be used to make halwa in off season. For this in hot desi ghee fry sooji and dried bill patri fruit pulp well. Add to it water, sugar and cardamom powder. Cook for 8-10 minutes by continuous stirring and then garnish with grated dry fruits. Now halwa is ready to serve

Murabba:

Ingredients:

Fresh ripe bill fruits, 1-2; sugar, 100 g ; cardamom powder, 1tea spoon.

Method:

Bill fruit pulp for murabba making

Extract fruit pulp in a bowl, separate seeds and cut into small slices. Boil 1-2 cup amount water in a pan and add to it sugar to prepare 3 tar chashni (Sugar syrup). Add bill fruit slices and cardamom powder to it and cook for 12-15 minutes till they are soft. Let it cool down and store in a  ceramic jar.

Bill murabba ready to serve

Pickle:

Ingredients:

Fresh bill fruits, 5-10; turmeric powder, 1 table spoon; mustard oil, 1 table spoon. red or green chopped chilies, 5-6 and salt according to taste.

Method:

Scrap fruit pulp with the help of spoon. Mesh pulp and add to it spices listed above and make paste. Mix it well and put inside a ceramic jar. Pickle is ready to serve.

Refreshing Summer Drink/Sharvat :

Ingredients:

Bill patri fruit,1; sweetener like honey or sugar, 1-3 tea spoon; cardamom powder,1/4 tea spoon; lemon juice. 1 tea spoon; black salt according to taste.

For sharvat ripe bill patri fruit, 1; sugar, 2 table spoon; Milk 1 cup amount.

Ingredient for sharvat making

Method:

Extract fruit pulp in a bowl and soak it in hot water to make soft. Mesh manually and strain it to separate seeds and fibers. Add to it honey or sugar and stir well, then add lemon juice, ice, salt and cardamom powder. Mix well and serve. It can be stored for 6 months.

For making sharvat add milk and sugar to the fruit pulp, Mesh manually and segregate seeds from meshed pulp. Drain to serving glass, add ice cube and serve.

Sharvat from ripe fruit pulp

Kachru:

For preparing a kachru, ingredients required are 100 g fresh tender leaves and flowers, 100 g besan (black gram powder) or corn flour. 1 cup amount fresh coriander leaves,1/2 table spoon ajwain, 3-5 green chilies, ½ table spoon turmeric powder, 2-3 chopped onions and salt according to taste.

Collecting bill patri leaves for kachru making

Method:

 Make a paste of leaves, flower , besan or corn flour and spices. Heat some oil on a flat heating pan. Put this paste over a pan and cook for 15 to 20 minutes then kachru will be ready. Serve hot with chutney

Nutritive Value:

100 gram of Aegle Marmelos or bael fruit contains:Energy, 137 cal; Moisture, 61gm; Protein, 2gm; Fat, 0; Mineral,  2gm; Fiber,  3gm; Carbohydrate,  32gm; Calcium: 85mg; Phosphorus, 50 mg; Iron, 1 mg4.

 Seek professional advice before treating this plant medicinally.

Medicinal Uses:

The roots are sweet, astringent, bitter and febrifuge. They are useful in diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia, stomachalgia, cardiopalmus, and vitiated conditions of vata, seminal weakness, uropathy, vomiting, intermitted fever, swellings and expectorant and are useful in infants3. The leaves are astringent, laxative, febrifuge and expectorant, and are useful in ophthalmic, deafness, inflammations, catarrh, diabetes and asthmatic complaints3. The unripe fruits are bitter, acrid sour, astringent, digestive and stomachic, and are useful in diarrhea, dysentery and stomachalgia. The ripe fruits are astringent, sweet, aromatic, cooling, febrifuge, laxative and tonic, and are good for the heart and brain 2. Local people mainly used this plant medicinally to treat diabetes,

Chemical constituents:

Fruits contain marmalosin, young bark contains coumarin, and unblelliferone; old bark has umbelliferone and coumarin. Leaves are having essential oil, consisting of alpha and beta- phellanderene. Matured bark contains fragrine, umbelliferone marmesin, sterols and triterpenoids. The leaves contain 0.6% essential oil mostly compound of d- limonene 2.

Religious value:

Bill patri is a sacred plant for inhabitants of Western Himalayas.Its leaves and fruits are offered to Lord Shiva during worship. These are specially offered to Lord Shiva in Maha Shivrati festival.

Bill patri offered to Lord Shiva in Maha Shivrati festival.

Other Uses:

Plant can be employed as a live fence to demarcate boundary. Wood is used as a fuel or making household items like tool and knife handles, pestles and combs etc. The gum enveloping the seeds is most abundant in wild fruits and especially when they are unripe 3. It is commonly used as household glue and is employed as an adhesive by jewelers3. It is mixed with lime plaster for waterproofing wells and is added to cement when building walls 3.The gum around the seeds is sometimes resorted to as a soap-substitute3. The fruit pulp has detergent action and has been used for washing clothes3.

Source of income:

Fruits and leaves of bill patri are sold in local market. Leaves are in heavy demand during Shivratri festival and usually sold outside the temple. Fruits are sold fresh or can be dried, and powdered for selling.

Bill patri selling in Mandi town of Himachal Pradesh

References:

1.Singh PB. (2018). Flora of Mandi district. Himachal Pradesh: North West Himalaya.

2.Purohit SS, Sharma AK, Prajapati ND, Kumar T. (2009); A handbook of medicinal plants: a complete source book. 2:352-3.

3.http://www.worldagroforestry.org/

4. https://www.epainassist.com/diet-and-nutrition/.

265 thoughts on “Aegle marmelos L. Bill Patri (बिल पत्री), Bel, Sans Bilva, Bael

  1. When someone writes an article he/she maintains the image of a user in his/her mind that how a user can know it. Therefore that’s why this paragraph is great. Thanks!|

  2. What i do not understood is in reality how you’re no longer really a lot more well-appreciated than you may be right now. You are so intelligent. You know therefore considerably in the case of this matter, produced me personally consider it from so many numerous angles. Its like women and men don’t seem to be interested unless it is something to accomplish with Lady gaga! Your individual stuffs excellent. Always take care of it up!|

  3. Thank you for the auspicious writeup. It in fact was a amusement account it. Look advanced to more added agreeable from you! However, how could we communicate?|

  4. Please let me know if you’re looking for a article writer for your weblog. You have some really good articles and I believe I would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load off, I’d absolutely love to write some articles for your blog in exchange for a link back to mine. Please blast me an e-mail if interested. Regards!|

  5. Hey terrific blog! Does running a blog similar to this require a lot of work? I have absolutely no knowledge of coding however I had been hoping to start my own blog soon. Anyway, should you have any recommendations or techniques for new blog owners please share. I understand this is off subject nevertheless I just had to ask. Thanks!|

  6. Hey I know this is off topic but I was wondering if you knew of any widgets I could add to my blog that automatically tweet my newest twitter updates. I’ve been looking for a plug-in like this for quite some time and was hoping maybe you would have some experience with something like this. Please let me know if you run into anything. I truly enjoy reading your blog and I look forward to your new updates.|

  7. I have to thank you for the efforts you have put in writing this blog.
    I’m hoping to view the same high-grade blog posts from you later on as well.

    In fact, your creative writing abilities has encouraged me to
    get my own blog now 😉

  8. Heya i am for the first time here. I came across this board and I in finding It really useful & it helped me out a lot. I’m hoping to offer something again and help others like you helped me.|

  9. Attractive section of content. I just stumbled upon your weblog and in accession capital to assert that I get in fact enjoyed account your blog posts. Any way I’ll be subscribing to your feeds and even I achievement you access consistently quickly.|

  10. Awesome things here. I’m very happy to see your article. Thanks
    so much and I am looking forward to touch
    you. Will you please drop me a e-mail?

  11. A motivating discussion is definitely worth comment. I believe that you ought to write more on this subject matter, it may not be a taboo matter but generally folks don’t discuss these subjects. To the next! Cheers!!|

  12. I am not sure where you’re getting your info, but good topic.
    I needs to spend some time learning more or understanding
    more. Thanks for wonderful information I was looking for this information for my
    mission.

  13. An outstanding share! I have just forwarded this onto a coworker who
    had been doing a little homework on this. And he actually bought me dinner
    because I stumbled upon it for him… lol. So allow me to reword this….
    Thank YOU for the meal!! But yeah, thanks for spending the time to talk about this subject here on your site.

  14. At least, that’s what you are commonly told all the time. Your creative potential is without limits. Thanks for sharing your awesome information. I really enjoy the things you gave here.

  15. Wow! This blog looks exactly like my old one! It’s on a totally different topic but it has pretty much the same page layout and design. Outstanding choice of colors!|

  16. Attractive component to content. I just stumbled upon your site and in accession capital to assert that I get in fact enjoyed account your blog posts. Any way I will be subscribing in your augment and even I success you get admission to persistently fast.|

  17. Terrific article! That is the type of information that should be shared around the internet. Disgrace on the seek engines for not positioning this put up upper! Come on over and seek advice from my website . Thank you =)|

  18. Guess I will just book mark your blogs. Your articles are amazing. I studied this field when I was in Louisiana. Since the day I first heard about your blog I have applied these insights and they have greatly enhanced my day to day activities. A lot of what you’re saying is a little confusing to me but I still find it very interesting and I want to discover much more. Very useful info particularly the last part.

  19. I enjoyed your post. Thank you. But clearlythefightis so largethat no one businesscan be expected totake it onalone. I enjoyed reading what you had to say.

  20. I’m impressed, I have to admit. Seldom do I come across a blog that’s both equally educative and
    interesting, and without a doubt, you’ve hit the nail on the head.
    The issue is something too few people are speaking intelligently about.

    I am very happy that I found this during my hunt for something regarding this.

  21. Wow, marvelous weblog structure! How long have you been running a blog
    for? you make running a blog look easy. The total glance of
    your website is magnificent, as well as the content!

  22. Good post. I learn something totally new and challenging on blogs I stumbleupon on a daily basis. It’s always useful to read content from other authors and practice something from their sites. |

  23. Link exchange is nothing else but it is just placing the other person’s webpage link on your page at proper place and other person will also do similar in support of you.|

  24. Does your site have a contact page? I’m having a tough time locating it but, I’d like to shoot you an e-mail. I’ve got some recommendations for your blog you might be interested in hearing. Either way, great blog and I look forward to seeing it expand over time.|

  25. An impressive share! I’ve just forwarded this onto a friend who has been conducting a little research on this. And he actually ordered me lunch because I found it for him… lol. So allow me to reword this…. Thanks for the meal!! But yeah, thanks for spending time to talk about this matter here on your web page.|

  26. I believe everything posted was very reasonable. However, think on this, what if you were to write a awesome post title? I ain’t suggesting your content isn’t solid, however suppose you added something that makes people want more? I mean BLOG_TITLE is a little vanilla. You should look at Yahoo’s home page and note how they create article headlines to get viewers to click. You might try adding a video or a related pic or two to get people interested about what you’ve got to say. In my opinion, it might bring your blog a little bit more interesting.|

  27. That is a great tip particularly to those fresh to the blogosphere. Short but very precise info… Thanks for sharing this one. A must read article!|

  28. Hey are using WordPress for your site platform? I’m new to the blog world but I’m trying to get started and set up my own. Do you require any html coding expertise to make your own blog? Any help would be greatly appreciated!|

  29. Write more, thats all I have to say. Literally, it seems as though you relied on the video to make your point. You definitely know what youre talking about, why waste your intelligence on just posting videos to your weblog when you could be giving us something informative to read?|

  30. When I originally commented I seem to have clicked on the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and from now on whenever a comment is added I recieve four emails with the exact same comment. Is there a means you can remove me from that service? Cheers!|

  31. Hi, I think your website might be having browser compatibility issues. When I look at your blog site in Safari, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping. I just wanted to give you a quick heads up! Other then that, fantastic blog!|

  32. I think this is among the so much significant information for me. And i am happy reading your article. But want to commentary on some basic things, The website taste is wonderful, the articles is really excellent : D. Good activity, cheers|

  33. It’s actually a nice and useful piece of information. I am happy that you simply shared this helpful information with us. Please stay us up to date like this. Thank you for sharing.|

  34. Good job on this article! This goes completely against almost everything I have seen until now but I’m going to do it . I’ll let you know what happens. I seriously appreciate individuals that do what you are doing. No real complaints on this end, this is simply a awesome article.

  35. We absolutely love your blog and find many of your post’s to be what precisely I’m looking for. Would you offer guest writers to write content for you? I wouldn’t mind creating a post or elaborating on some of the subjects you write related to here. Again, awesome site!|

  36. Fantastic beat ! I would like to apprentice while you amend your site, how can i subscribe for a blog site?
    The account helped me a acceptable deal. I had been tiny bit acquainted of this your broadcast offered bright clear idea

    my blog post :: 먹튀검증

  37. I think that is among the so much important info for me. And i’m happy studying your article. However should statement on some common issues, The website style is great, the articles is actually great : D. Just right process, cheers|

  38. Hello, i feel that i noticed you visited my website so i came to go back the choose?.I’m attempting to to find things to enhance my site!I suppose its ok to use a few of your ideas!!|

  39. Hi! Someone in my Facebook group shared this site with us so I came to check it out. I’m definitely enjoying the information. I’m book-marking and will be tweeting this to my followers! Exceptional blog and terrific design and style.|

  40. Hi there would you mind letting me know which hosting company you’re using? I’ve loaded your blog in 3 different browsers and I must say this blog loads a lot faster then most. Can you recommend a good web hosting provider at a honest price? Kudos, I appreciate it!|

  41. Woah! I’m really digging the template/theme of this website. It’s simple, yet effective. A lot of times it’s tough to get that “perfect balance” between user friendliness and visual appeal. I must say that you’ve done a superb job with this. Additionally, the blog loads extremely quick for me on Internet explorer. Exceptional Blog!|

  42. Its such as you learn my mind! You seem to know so much about this, such as you wrote the guide in it or something. I feel that you can do with a few to pressure the message house a bit, however other than that, this is wonderful blog. An excellent read. I’ll certainly be back.|

  43. It is the best time to make some plans for the future and it’s time to be happy. I’ve read this post and if I could I wish to suggest you some interesting things or advice. Perhaps you can write next articles referring to this article. I wish to read even more things about it!|

  44. I’m really enjoying the design and layout of your blog. It’s a very easy on the eyes which makes it much more enjoyable for me to come here and visit more often. Did you hire out a developer to create your theme? Fantastic work!|

  45. It’s perfect time to make some plans for the future and it is time to be happy. I have read this post and if I could I wish to suggest you some interesting things or tips. Maybe you can write next articles referring to this article. I want to read even more things about it!|

  46. It is perfect time to make some plans for the long run and it is time to be happy. I have learn this publish and if I may I want to counsel you some fascinating issues or tips. Maybe you can write next articles referring to this article. I want to learn even more things about it!|

  47. Howdy just wanted to give you a quick heads up. The text in your post seem to be running off the screen in Internet explorer. I’m not sure if this is a formatting issue or something to do with browser compatibility but I figured I’d post to let you know. The style and design look great though! Hope you get the issue fixed soon. Many thanks|

  48. Hmm it seems like your blog ate my first comment (it was extremely long) so I guess I’ll just sum it up what I wrote and say, I’m thoroughly enjoying your blog. I as well am an aspiring blog writer but I’m still new to the whole thing. Do you have any points for first-time blog writers? I’d certainly appreciate it.|

  49. Fantastic website you have here but I was wanting to know if you knew of any discussion boards that cover the same topics talked about in this article? I’d really like to be a part of online community where I can get advice from other knowledgeable people that share the same interest. If you have any recommendations, please let me know. Thanks!|

  50. After looking into a few of the blog posts on your web page, I honestly like your technique of writing a blog. I saved it to my bookmark webpage list and will be checking back in the near future. Please visit my web site too and let me know what you think.|

  51. Does your site have a contact page? I’m having trouble locating it but, I’d like to shoot you an e-mail. I’ve got some ideas for your blog you might be interested in hearing. Either way, great blog and I look forward to seeing it grow over time.|

  52. This information is magnificent. This sometimes motivates us to take steps that will create happy chemicals in our brains. It’s like you read my thoughts! I have been looking everywhere for this!

  53. Heya! I’m at work surfing around your blog from my new iphone 3gs! Just wanted to say I love reading through your blog and look forward to all your posts! Keep up the superb work!|

  54. Howdy, i read your blog occasionally and i own a similar one and i was just wondering if you get a lot of spam remarks? If so how do you stop it, any plugin or anything you can suggest? I get so much lately it’s driving me mad so any support is very much appreciated.|

  55. Thanks for helping to make my day epic. Some nice points there. Type style of writing reminds me of a person I used to know but I just can not remember who it was. Great post!

  56. I think this is among the most vital info for me. And i am glad reading your
    article. But want to remark on some general things, The web site style is ideal, the articles is really great :
    D. Good job, cheers

  57. I have been surfing online more than 3 hours today, but I never found any attention-grabbing article like yours. It is beautiful worth sufficient for me. In my opinion, if all webmasters and bloggers made good content material as you did, the internet shall be much more helpful than ever before.|

  58. Hi, I do think this is an excellent web site. I stumbledupon it 😉 I may come back yet again since I saved as a favorite it. Money and freedom is the greatest way to change, may you be rich and continue to guide others.|

  59. Unquestionably believe that which you said. Your favorite reason appeared to be on the net the easiest thing to be aware of. I say to you, I certainly get annoyed while people consider worries that they plainly don’t know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top and also defined out the whole thing without having side-effects , people could take a signal. Will likely be back to get more. Thanks|

  60. It is appropriate time to make some plans for the longer term and it is time to be happy. I have read this publish and if I may just I want to counsel you some attention-grabbing issues or tips. Perhaps you could write next articles regarding this article. I wish to learn even more things approximately it!|

  61. I’m not sure exactly why but this weblog is loading incredibly slow for me. Is anyone else having this problem or is it a problem on my end? I’ll check back later and see if the problem still exists.|

  62. I really like your blog.. very nice colors & theme. Did you design this
    website yourself or did you hire someone to do it
    for you? Plz respond as I’m looking to construct my own blog and
    would like to know where u got this from. thanks

  63. I seriously love your blog.. Very nice colors & theme. Did you create this amazing site yourself? Please reply back as I’m planning to create my very own site and would like to find out where you got this from or what the theme is called. Thank you!

  64. Oh my goodness! Impressive article dude! Thank you, However I am experiencing issues with your RSS. I don’t know the reason why I can’t subscribe to it. Is there anybody else having identical RSS problems? Anyone who knows the answer can you kindly respond? Thanks!!

  65. Aw, this was a really good post. Taking the time and actual effort to create a really good article… but what can I say… I put things off a lot and don’t seem to get nearly anything done.|

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *