Family: Menispermaceae

Synonym: Cissampelos acuminata,Cissampelos acuminata, Cissampelos argentea, Cissampelos auriculata, Cissampelos australis, Cissampelos benthamiana, Cissampelos boivinii, Cissampelos bojeriana, Cissampelos caapeba, Cissampelos caapeba, Cissampelos canescens, Cissampelos cocculus, Cissampelos consociata, Cissampelos convolvulacea, Cissampelos cordata, Cissampelos cordifolia, Cissampelos cumingiana, Cissampelos delicatula, Cissampelos diffusa, Cissampelos discolor, Cissampelos discolor, Cissampelos diversa, Cissampelos elata,Cissampelos ellenbeckii, Cissampelos eriocarpa, Cissampelos glaucescens,Cissampelos gracilis,Cissampelos grallatoria,Cissampelos guayaquilensis,Cissampelos haenkeana,Cissampelos hederacea, Cissampelos hernandifolia, Cissampelos heterophylla,Cissampelos hirsuta,

Cissampelos hirsutissima, Cissampelos kohautiana, Cissampelos limbata, Cissampelos littoralis, Cissampelos longipes MiCissampelos madagascariensis, Cissampelos mauritiana,Cissampelos microcarpa, Cissampelos monoica, Cissampelos nephrophylla, Cissampelos obtecta, Cissampelos orbiculata, Cissampelos orinocensis, Cissampelos pannosa, Cissampelos piolanei, Cissampelos salzmanni, Cissampelos subpeltata, Cissampelos subreniformis. Cissampelos tamoides, Cissampelos testudinaria, Cissampelos testudinum, Cissampelos tetrandra, Cissampelos tomentosa, Cissampelos tomentosa, Cissampelos violifolia, Cocculus orbiculatus,Cocculus villosus, Dissopetalum mauritianum.

Common Name: Velvet leaf,False pareira Brava, Ice vine.

Local Name: Bhatindu (भटिण्डू)

Bhatindu is a twining shrub of Western Himalayas, commonly seen growing  in hedges and shrubberies. It is found creeping on ground or twining over trees and shrubs, upto an altitude of  2000 m. 

Bhatindu  vine twining around support.

Bhatindu is propogated through seeds. Being a dioecious species, both male and female plants  need to be grown if  its fruit and seed are required. Bhatindu is  a medicinally important plant and employed to treat  a wide range of health aliments. Traditionally  it is mainly  used for digestion related  problems like diarrhea, dysentery, colic, upset stomach, and stomachache. So, this plant is often taken as supplementary food. For this purpose  leaves, are mainly employed. Powdered leaves are taken as a tonic with milk and fresh leaf juice as a refreshing agent in  local drinks.  Bhatindu  leaves crushed in water, give a jelly which is used as refreshment.

Bhatindu growing wild

Whole bhatindu  plant is used in AYUSH medicines for the treatment of dyspepsia, diarrhoea, cough and urinary troubles 1

It is also used as a fodder and ornamental plant for its green heart shape foliage and reddish fruits. Sometimes  a  thin rope is made from the bhatindu rhizomes. Bhatindu  is collected from wild as a source of medicine, fodder,  food supplement and material for local personal use.

Bhatindu Plant:

Plant is softly pubescent or tomentose, twining shrubs.

Leaves  are broadly ovate or orbicular, 2.5-10 cm across, peltate or cordate, palmately 5-7 nerved; petioles to 8cm long.

Flowers are  minute, greenish- yellow. Male flowers in axillary, branched cymes; sepals4, hairy, ovate, spreading; petals4, connate; stamens4, filaments united in a very short column, top dilated, peltate. Female flowers clustered in the axils of orbicular, hoary, imbricate bracts, arranged in long, axillary racemes ; sepals, similar but smaller, lobed; ovary hairy.

Bhatindu in full bloom

Fruit is Drupe. Drupes sub-globose, compressed, red when ripe; endocarp curved.

Leaves can be collected round the year.

Edible Uses:  

Bhatindu is  mainly used as a herbal health supplement for its rich medicinal value. Dried leaf powder is taken as tonic and fresh leaf juice is taken as local refreshing drink.

Collecting leaves for Juice extraction

Local Drink:

Ingredients:

Fresh leaves, 10-15; Jaggery/ honey,  2 table spoon; lemon juice, 1 tea spoon ; Water, 2 cup amount; a pinch of sugar and salt.

Methods:

Blend green fresh leaves in a blender or mixer. Add to it  jaggery or honey and a pinch of sugar and salt. Mix well with lemon juice. Sieve into serving glasses and serve. Leaves crushed in water gives  a jelly refreshment.

Local Drink from Bhatindu  leaves juice.

Seek professional advice before treating this plant medicinally.

Medicinal Uses:

Locally leaf juice taken as drink to cure  chronic dysentery. Fresh leaves mixed with wheat dough are  fed to livestock for stomach disorders. IN the simplest cases leaves were good as an antiseptic against inflammation and can be put on wounds in order to heal sores 2In Assam, India was some discussion about family planning with C. pareira. It is applied together with other indigenous plants 3 .Recent studies  show  its anti-diarrhoeal, antileukemic ,anti-inflammatory ,memory enhancing ,antihyperglycemic ,cardioprotective effect,anti-tumour and anti-oxidant activity 4It is widly known  for its effectiveness against  abscess, antifertility, bodyache, boils, bronchitis, burns, caqrbuncle, catarrhal infection of bladder, child birth, cold , colic, cough, cystitis, diarrhoea, dysentery, dyspepsia, epilepsy, eye complaints, fever, gastric complaints, headache, heart burn, indigestion, inflammation, itching, jaundice, leukoderma, leprosy, loose motions, malaria, piles, pimples, scabies, scorpion- bite, sores, spleen enlargement, stomach ulcer, ulcer, urinary complaints, venereal complaints, wounds, and for fermentations, and as diuretics, stomachic, tonic and local drinks. Symbolic wearing of pieces of stem around neck cures headache 5,6,7.

Chemical constituents: hayatine, 1-curine, thymol(roots); 11 quaternary alkaloids including meismnine, cis-samine, pareirine, d- isochodrodendrine, 1-bebeerine, hayatine and hayatinine(root-bark); cycleanine, 1-bebeerine, hayatidine and d-quercitol(leaves); cissampareine, dl-curine dimethiodide(plant) have been isolated 7.

Biological activity: Root ext. hypoglycarmic and CNS depressant; whole plant anticancer and muscle relaxant7.

Other Uses: 

Green foliage is given as fodder to livestocks. A thin rope can be made from the rhizomes.

References:

  1. Singh PB. (2018). Flora of Mandi district. Himachal Pradesh: North West Himalaya.
  2. Neuwinger HD. African Ethnobotany: Chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology Chapman and Hill London 1994
  3. Tshibangu JN, Chifundera K, Kaminsky R, Wright AD, Konig GM Screening of African  medicinal plants for antimicrobial and enzyme inhibitory activity. J Ethnopharmacol 2002; 80(1): 25-35
  4. Arora, M., Sharma, T., Devi, A., Bainsal, N., & Siddiqui, A. A. (2012). An inside review of Cissampelos pareira Linn: a potential medicinal plant of India. International Research Journal of Pharmacy3(12), 38-41.
  5. Jain, S. K. (1991). Dictionary of Indian folk medicine and ethnobotany. Deep publications.
  6. Uphof.J.C.Th. (1968); Dictionary of Economic Plants. H.R. Englemann (U.Cramer), Weinheim
  7. Sood SK, Thakur S. (2004): Ethnobotany of Rewalsar Himalaya. Deep Publications.

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