Synonyms: Broussonetia billardii; Broussonetia cordata; Broussonetia cucullata; Broussonetia dissecta; Broussonetia elegans; Broussonetia kasii; Broussonetia kazi:Broussonetia maculate; Broussonetia nana; Broussonetia navicularis; Broussonetia navifolia; Broussonetia spathulata; Broussonetia tricolor; Morus papyrifera; Papyrius japonica; Papyrius papyrifera; Papyrius polimorphus; Smithiodendron artocarpioideum.
Common Name: Paper Mulberry
Local Name: Jangli Toot(जंगली तूत)
Jangli Toot is a medium to large sized deciduous tree of Western Himalayas with a broad, spreading crown. It is commonly seen growing in moist-shady places like in and around mountain ravines and forests. Beinga very adaptable tree it is luxuriantly found in open areas, secondary forest, and thickets, along streams and in many other useful localities of social and economic importance. It sometimes grows in such a large extent that it is considered as a troublesome weed to be removed. Usually jangli toot can grow upto an altitude of 1500 m in Western Himalayas. It can be propagated either through seeds or by means of suckers which grow from any portion of root. Jangli Toot is a dioecious species and both male and female plants must be grown nearby to felicitate seeds propagation. It shows extremely fast growth and quickly outshines other species. Sometimes it is found that jangli toot invasion in an area excludes other species and it becomes very difficult to eradicate this plant.
Commonly jangli toot is called “Paper Mulberry” and this name is given because the bark of this plant is used to make paper. But this practice is not so common in Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, North western Himalayas where it is only used as fodder and fuel plant. The paper made from this plant varies in colour if the outer and inner barks are used together or separately1. Plant is sometimes also nicknamed the “Deer’s Tree” because the tender leaves and twigs of this plant can be used to feed deer.
Jangli toot is a multipurpose plant and can offer many other uses. Itsripe fruits and young leaves are edible. Fruits are an excellent addition to rayata, sprouts, puddings & desserts. Young leaves and tender tops of this plant can be eaten cooked. These can be made into kachru, parantha, pakoras or added to other greens for making leafy vegetable saag. Fruits are abundant in nutrient content so addition of this plant in lifestyle as a food supplement can keep our body functioning well.
Jangli Toot is harvested from the wild as a source of food, fodder, fuel, medicine and terial by local people for their local personal use only. Plant can offer multiple commercial uses but for the local community of Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh India there is no commercial significance of this plant. Mass awareness is needed for multifarious uses of jangli toot
The plant establishes itself quickly on denuded and degraded sites in the form of a thick tree cover, so helpful to fix soils and prevent further soil erosion due to its dichotomous root system 2. Thus it can play a significant role in degraded land management. When growing in areas polluted by heavy metals it has been shown to concentrate metals like lead, zinc and copper, so It also shows a high potential for use in phytoremediation projects, either as a means of removing these metals or as a means of locking them up and helping to restore the fertility of the soil3.
Jangli Toot Plant:
Jangli Toot is medium-sized or large, deciduous trees, to 15m tall.
Branchlets are tomentose.
Leaves are alternate and opposite, 12-22 * 5-15 cm, very variable, obliquely-ovate, acuminate, membranous, often lobed, dentate scabrous above, softly tomentose beneath; petioles 5-10cm long.
Plants is dioecious; male flowers yellowish, in cylindrical catkins, perianth 4-fid; stamens 4; female flowers reddish , in globose, pedunculate heads ca 1.2cm across, mixed with persistent hairy bracts, perianth 2-4 toothed.
Fruits are fleshy, red and shinning.
Jangli Toot is in flowering & fruiting from March to August. Edible fruits can be collected from May to August, while tender shoot terminals and leaves can be collected round the year.
Fruits and young leaves of are jangli toot areedible, Fruits often eaten raw, these are with very less edible flesh but with a lovely flavour. Ripe fruits are a good source of fatty acids, essential in the human diet and make an excellent addition to rayata, sprouts, puddings & desserts etc. They also contain considerable amounts of carbohydrates, proteins anda number of minerals including calcium, magnesium, and copper. Fruits contain very useful phytochemicals such as7-hydroxycoumarin, protocatechuate acid,ferulic acid, protocatechuic acid and epicatechin and have substantial antioxidant activity4. Phenolic compounds and flavo-noids appear to be the main components responsible for the antioxidant activity of the fruit extracts4. The combination of bioactive compounds and rich nutritional composition of these make fruits valuable as functional food or as nutritional supplements 4. Leaves are also edible and can be eaten cooked in pakoras, kachru etc.
Jangli Toot fruit sprouts:
2 cups of sprouted black gram and moong beans;1 finely chopped small or medium sized onion,1 finely chopped small sized beetroot,1 finely chopped small sized apple; ½ cup amount roasted peanuts;5 jangli toot ripe fruits; 1 tsp lemon juice or as required; rock salt or black salt as required
Rinse the sprouted black gram and moong beans in water. Use these either raw or steam cooked. Mix all the ingredients except the salt and lemon juice in a bowl. Season with salt and add a few drops of lemon juice.
Ripe fruits of jangli toot and other chopped fruits acc. to taste,1/2 kg; curd, 1 kg; sweetener like honey/ sugar/ condensed milk, 1-3 teaspoon; cardamom powder,1/4 tea spoon; black salt according to taste.
Take curd in a bowl. Add to it sweetener according to choice and stir well. Add cardamom powder, black salt, jangli toot fruits and copped leaves, other chopped fruits according to preference. Mix well and serve.
Ripe fruits of jangli toot and other chopped leaves,1/2kg; curd, 1kg; Chopped medium sized onion, 3-4, red or green chilies, 3-4, black pepper, ¼ tea spoon, black salt according to taste.
Take curd in a bowl. Add all above in sequence. Mix well and serve.
Kachru or sosaru:
For preparing a kachru, ingredients required are 1kg fresh young leaves of jangli toot, 1/2 kg besan (black gram powder) or corn flour. 1 cup amount fresh coriander leaves,1/2 tablespoon ajwain, 3-5 green chilies, ½ table spoon turmeric powder, 2-3 chopped onions and salt according to taste
Make a paste of leaves, besan or corn flour and spices. Heat some oil on a flat heating pan. Put this paste over a pan and cook for 15 to 20 minutes then kachru will be ready to serve.
Fresh young leaves of jangli toot,250 g; besan (black gram flour) or corn flour,1/2 kg ;mustard oil, 10-12 table spoon; 1 cup fresh coriander plus curry and mint leaves (chopped), 5-6 green chilies, ½ table spoon turmeric powder, 2-3 medium sized chopped onions, 2-3 medium sized finely chopped potato and salt according to taste.
Make a paste of leaves, chopped potatoes, basen and spices listed above. Mix well and make a small ball of this paste. Put mustard oil in a fry pan and give these balls a deep fry. Repeat this process till the whole paste is over. Pakoras are now ready to serve. Serve these hot with chutney or tomato-ketchup.
Jangli toot pakoras; 250 g mustard oil 3-4 tablespoons; coriander powder, 1 tablespoon; fenugreek seed powder, ½ table spoon; cumin seeds, 1 teaspoon; turmeric powder, 1 tablespoon; red chilies, 2-3; chopped onion, 1; chopped garlic, 4-6 cloves; ginger paste, ½ table spoon; tomato puree, 3 or 5 cups curd.
Saute curd in hot mustard oil along with spices listed above in the same sequence. Add to it jangli toot pakoras and cook for 8-10 minutes. Now add to it garam masala and garnish with mint or coriander leaves. Jangli toot pakora curry is now ready to serve, You can serve it with rice or chapatti
100g of fruits contains: moisture 0.17g; Ash 0.13g; Crude fat 0.21g ; Crude protein 0.16g; Carbohydrate 0.32g; s crude fiber 14.20g. Minerals (mg/kg DW) ;Ca 15.12; Cu 0.43; Fe 8.23; Mg 12.1; Zn 1.01; Se 0.00; Cr 0.11; K 14.18; Mn 0.76; Pb 0.03; P 12.98; Hg 0.79 4.
Seek professional advice before treating this plant medicinally
Jangli toot has notused much as a medicinal plant by the local community, however fruits are eaten asstomachic and tonic by some knowledgeable people.
The leaves are considered astringent, diuretic5. They are used in the treatment of fluxes and gonorrhoea 5.
The leaf juice is diaphoretic and laxative – it is also used in the treatment of dysentery. It is also poulticed onto various skin disorders, bites etc 6.
The stem bark is diuretic, haemostatic 6. A decoction is used in the treatment of ascites and menorrhagia 5.A decoction of the twigs is used in treating eruptions, whilst the juice extracted from them is used in the treatment of anuria5.
The resinous sap found in the bark is used as a vulnerability, and in treating wounds and insect bites5.The fruit is diuretic, mucilaginous, ophthalmic, stimulant, stomachic and tonic 5 6
The root is cooked with other foods as a galactagogue 6.The roots, leaves,bark and fruit are all used in traditional Chinese medicines. In China, the leaves have been used in folk medicine against chronic prostatitis, and the fruit has been used to treat impotence and ophthalmic disorders, the efficacy of which has been proved by pharmacological experiments7. Various compounds identified in this plant have been shown to inhibit lipid peroxidation 8, have antiplatelet effects 9, and inhibit the activities of the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1b (PTP1B) enzyme and aromatase 7,10
Jangli Toot is mainly used as fodder, fuel and for making low cost household items. However literature review shows that this plant is a multipurpose plant which can offer multifarious uses for the inhabitants of Western Himalayas except fodder and fuel as follow:
An oil from the seeds is used in soap and lacquer oil production It makes a good shelterbelt and windbreak 2. A mulch of the chopped leaves of this plant, applied at 4 tonnes per hectare, improves soil moisture and phosphorus content, leading to increased crop production2, 11, 12, 13.. The cloth can be produced by beating strips of bark on a flat surface with a wooden mallet. A very fine cloth can be made in this way, the more the bark is beaten the finer the cloth becomes. Larger sizes can be made by overlapping 2 pieces of bark and beating them together 13.
A leather substitute can also be made from the bark13.
When used for making paper, branches are harvested after the leaves have fallen in the autumn, they are steamed and the fibres stripped off. In humid areas this can be done without steaming the branches. The inner and outer bark are then separated by scraping (or simply peeling in humid areas) and the fibres are cooked for 2 hours with lye before being hand pounded with mallets. The paper varies in colour if the outer and inner barks are used together or separately1.
An oil from the seeds is used in soap and lacquer oil production14.
The plant has been investigated for its properties as a pesticide. The xylem contains an antifungal substance active against Fusariun species15 The leaf powder, when fed to the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) caused restriction in its pupation and adult emergence15,16 .
The light-coloured wood is straight and even-grained; soft, light in weight, brittle, not very durable. Easily worked, it is used for making items such as cups, bowls, packing cases, and cheap furniture etc 2,5,16, 17.
The diets with 10% to 15% of B. papyrifera silage might enhance the immune and antioxidant function of dairy cows and increase the polyunstaturated fatty acid concentration in the milk1 8.
As Jangli Toot isluxuriantly present in its natural habitat and it can play an important role in socio-economic development of rural community. At present the plant is not utilized optimally for its multifarious uses. For sustainable utilization of this plant mass awareness is needed for its edible, medicinal and commercial value.
- Bell. L. A.(1988) Plant Fibres for Papermaking.
- Zhao, X., Liu, J., Xia, X., Chu, J., Wei, Y., Shi, S., … & Jiang, Z. (2014). The evaluation of heavy metal accumulation and application of a comprehensive bio-concentration index for woody species on contaminated sites in Hunan, China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21(7), 5076-5085.
- Sun, J., Liu, S. F., Zhang, C. S., Yu, L. N., Bi, J., Zhu, F., & Yang, Q. L. (2012). Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of Broussonetia papyrifera fruits. PloS one, 7(2), e32021.
- Stuart, G. A., & Smith, F. P. (1911). Chinese materia medica. Vegetable kingdom, 558.
- Duke, J. A., & Ayensu, E. S. (1985). Medicinal plants of China (Vol. 4). Reference publications.
- Lee D, Bhat KPL, Fong HHS, Farnsworth NR, Pezzuto JM, et al. (2001) Aromatase inhibitors from Broussonetia papyrifera. Journal of Natural Products 64:1286–1293.
- . Ko HH, Yu SM, Ko FN, Teng CM, Lin CN (1997) Bioactive constituents of Morusaustralis and Broussonetia papyrifera. Journal of Natural Products 60: 1008–1011.
- Lin CN, Lu CM, Lin HC, Fang SC, Shieh BJ, et al. (1996) Novel antiplatelet constituents from formosan moraceous plants. Journal of Natural Products 59:834–838.
- Chen RM, Hu LH, An TY, Li J, Shen Q (2002) Natural PTP1B Inhibitors from Broussonetia papyrifera.
- Uphof, J. C. (1959). Th. Dictionary of economic plants. J. Cramer. Iehre, West Germany.
- Usher, G. (1974). A dictionary of plants used by man. Constable and Company Ltd..
- Hill, A. F. (1952). Economic botany. A textbook of useful plants and plant products. Economic botany. A textbook of useful plants and plant products., (2nd edn).
- Van Sam, H., Nanthavong, K., & Kessler, P. J. (2004). Trees of Laos and Vietnam: A field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species. Blumea-Biodiversity, Evolution and Biogeography of Plants, 49(2-3), 201-349.
- Vines, R. A. (1984). Trees of central Texas. University of Texas Press.
- 158 Gupta, B. L. (1945). Forest Flora of Chakrata, Dehra Dun and Saharanpur. Forest Research Institute Press, 10-12.
- Si, B., Tao, H., Zhang, X., Guo, J., Cui, K., Tu, Y., & Diao, Q. (2018). Effect of Broussonetia papyrifera L.(paper mulberry) silage on dry matter intake, milk composition, antioxidant capacity and milk fatty acid profile in dairy cows. Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences, 31(8), 1259.